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Surface Drainage Design
This type of drain is mainly used for broad area farming where open drains can be incorporated into the property management. The land area, catchment area, soil types and topography are information that is required to design an effective surface drainage system.

Sub Surface Drainage Design
These drains are usually associated with intensive agriculture areas such as grapes or vegetables. The land area, rainfall, soil types, outlet areas and topography is required information to design an effective subsurface drainage system.

Types of Products
There are many sub surface pipe products on the market that can be used for drainage. Product use depends on the water volume discharge, soil type, longevity of the product, maintenance requirements and product cost.

Soil Profiles
Soil types and profiles are important for a successful drainage design. The effect on the ground water table by the drains will be limited by the permeability or water flow through the soil.

Use of Drains
Drains are generally used to improve winter or summer waterlogged areas on the property. The reduction of surface ponding is required within a 24 to 48 hour period so that annual or perennial crops can grow and produce.
Open drains are generally cheaper to construct, maintain and can be more effective. The subsurface drains are more expensive to develop because of trench excavation, pipe product required and back fill material.

Typical excavated drain with battered sides that is used to reduce water table and is a disposal point for subsurface drains.

 

Surface drains are used to discharge surface runoff and seepage flows into a safe disposal point such as dams and vegetated creek lines.

 
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